QUANTUM COMPUTING

Kazim Ali Student ID MS120400062

Virtual University Of Pakistan

Abstract— This research work provides a general vision of quantum computers. The function description, the differences between quantum computers and silicon, the major problems constructing a quantum computer and lots other basics. No particular scientific understanding needed for the reader.

Introduction TO QUANTUM COMPUTER

Approximately 2030 computers may have no transistor and chipset. Think of a team that is significantly faster than a classical computer common silicon chipset. In theory Quantum computer can work without energy consumption and thousands of millions of times faster than that of computers today PIV. Scientists have already thought about a quantum computer, as a new breed of classical computers.

Gershenfeld says that if manufacturing smaller and smaller transistors continue with same rate as in past years, then by the year around 2020, in the width of a wire into a computer chip will be nothing but in size of a single atom. These are the sizes for the rules of classical physics no longer apply. Equipment specially designed for today's developed chip technology does not continue to receive cheaper and better. Due to its great power, a quantum computer is a next step in computer technology attraction. (Manay, 1998, p. 5).

A quantum computing technology is also vastly different. Quantum computer uses quantum bits (qubits) for operation. Qubit has a quaternary nature. Rules of quantum mechanics are completely different from the rules of classic physics. A qubit may not exist only in the corresponding states to the logical values 0 or 1 like in the classic event of one bit, but also in a state of superposition.

A qubit is a bit of data which may be zero and one simultaneously (in a state of superposition). So the working on a computer rather than of a qubit standard bit to perform calculations using both values simultaneously. A qubyte can have all values from 0 to 255 simultaneously which consists of eight qubits. "Multi-qubyte systems have the power beyond. What is possible with classical computers for operation?" (Quantum Computers and Moore's Law, p.1)

Forty qubits quantum computer and modern supercomputers may have the same working power. According to Chuang a supercomputer takes a huge time to find a telephone no from the world telephone directories database, where quantum computer is capable of solving this work in 27 minutes.

HISTORY OF QUANTUM COMPUTERS

In 1982 R.Feynman introduced an interesting thought how the quantum system can be used in reasons of calculation. He also gave an explanation of how the effects of quantum physics can be simulated by a quantum computer. This concept was really interesting that can be used for future research of quantum systems. Each experiment that investigates the effects and the laws of quantum physics is complicated and expensive. Quantum computer would be a system performing such experiments permanently. Later, in 1985it was demonstrated that quantum computer would be much more powerful than a classic in 1985. (West, 2000, p. 3)

The key difference between classical computers and quantum computers

A classical computer's memory is a string set of 0 and 1, and can perform calculations on a single set of numbers simultaneously. The quantum computer memory can be a set of different superposition numbers in the quantum state. A quantum computer can do an estimate arbitrary reversible classical numbers all at once. To perform a calculation in many different numbers simultaneously and then interfered all outcomes for a single answer, quantum computer makes a lot more potent than a classical one. (West, 2000)

The potential and the power of quantum computing

Quantum computer with 500 qubits provides superposition states 2500. Every state would be classically equal to a unique list of 500 1's and 0's. Such equipment can be operated in 2500 states simultaneously. Eventually, searching the system could cause a collapse into a single quantum state arising from a single response, a list of 500 qubits 1's and 0's, as stated by the truism measurement of the quantum mechanics. This kind of equipment is equal to a classical computer's memory, with around 10150 processors. (West, 2000, p. 3)

Moore's Law for quantum computers

According to Moore's Law, the presence of transistors on silicon chip doubles after every 18 months. According to this evolution, if there is a classical computer in 2020, will be executed at 40 GHz CPU speed with 160 GB RAM. When we are using an analog Moor's law for quantum computers, the number of quantum bits would double every 18 months. However, the addition of a single qubit is enough to double the speed. Therefore, the quantum computer speed increases more than doubled. (Quantum Computers and Moore's Law, § 1)

Certain challenges on the production of quantum computers

Any type of measure a quantum state settings deemed an interactive process with the environment (with other particles - light particles, for example), which causes a change of certain parameters of this quantum state. Measuring the quantum state superposition will collapse into a classical state. This is called a decoherence. This is the major obstacle in the process of production of quantum computer. If the problem can not be resolved decoherence, quantum computer will not be better than a silicon computer. (Daniel, 1999)

To make powerful speedy quantum computers, many operations must be performed before quantum coherence is lost. It may be impossible to construct a quantum computer that will make the calculations before decohering. But if it is a quantum computer, where the number of bugs is sufficiently low, it is possible to utilize a data correction code for the prevention lost even when qubits in the computer decohere. There are plenty of errors correction codes. One of the most simple classical error correction codes is called repetition code. 0 is encoded as 000 to 1 and 111. Then if you invest just a bit, you get a 011 status such that it can be corrected to the original 111. Signs of a quantum superposition states are also important, but also signs the errors can be corrected. There is even a theory of quantum error correction codes. (Daniel, 1999, p. 1)

Further problem is the hardware for quantum computers. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) for operation is the most popular nowadays, due to some successful experiments. MIT and Los Alamos National Laboratory have built a simple a quantum computer using MRI technology. Certain other designs are based on the ion trap and quantum electrodynamics (QED) for operation. All these methods have significant limitations. Nobody knows what the future of architecture is quantum computer hardware (West, 2000, p. 6)

Quantum computers Future Benefits

1. Artificial intelligence

It has been mentioned that quantum computers will be much faster and faster so that perform a lot of operations in a very short time. On the other hand, it has been increasing the operating speed of computers help to learn quickly even using one of the simplest methods. It limit error model for learning.

2. Cryptography and Peter Shor Algorithm

Peter Shor (Bell Laboratories) discovered the first quantum algorithm in 1994 that can make an efficient factorization. It became a complex application that only a quantum computer could do. Factoring is one of the most important problems of cryptography. For example, the security of RSA (electronic banking security) is public key cryptography. It depends on factoring and is a major problem. Due to the many useful features of the quantum computer, scientists put more efforts to build it. However, breaking any current encryption that takes almost forever to existing equipment, you can only take a few years in the quantum computer. (Maney, 1998)

3. Other Different Benefits

High Yield enables us to develop complex compression algorithms of recognition, voice speech and image, molecular simulations, true randomness and quantum communication. The chance is important in the simulations. Molecular simulations are important for chemistry and biology for the development of simulation applications for chemistry and biology. With the help of quantum communication both receiver and sender is notified when an intruder tries to capture the signal. The quantum bits also enable more information to be communicated shortly. Quantum computers make the communication more secure.

The strangeness of quantum computers

"On the side of theory, quantum mechanics penetrates deeply into the areas that are almost unthinkable. For example, it is possible that a quantum computer contains an infinite number of correct answers to an infinite number of parallel universes. What happens is that you get the right response to allow the universe. Think about what happen is that time. Charles Bennett of IBM says: "It takes courage to accept these things." "If you do, you must have to believe in a bunch of some other strange things. (Manay, 1998)

Dancing Atoms Chloroform

A few years ago, Gershenfeld and Chuang made the first quantum computer. It is based on nuclear magnetic resonance technology. The program was the realization of a single Grover search algorithm. Compared with classical computers took an item out of four in one step, instead of two or three classical steps calculated. The price for making the first two qubits equipment was approximately $ 1 million.

The entanglement of quantum systems

According to quantum mechanics, external force acting on two-particle quantum system can cause entanglement. The quantum state of this system can contain all positions of the spins (internal magnetic moments) of each particle. The total spin of the system can only be equal to certain discrete values with different probabilities. Measurements of total spin quantum systems showed certain positions of the spins of some particles are not independent of each other. For such systems, when an orientation of a particle of a spin changed for some reason, one of a spin orientation another particle automatically and instantly changed. The laws that have been developed to date on the speed of light is disobeyed in this case, because the change in the orientation of a rotation occurs immediately. At least this phenomenon for quantum computing is not running to use.

It is well known that a communication speed is limited by the speed of light as the speed of light can travel faster. The question is how they communicate particle quantum system when they change their spin orientation and thus their vector states. Famous scientists spent much time talking about it. Einstein's idea that some unknown parameters "hidden" quantum system are contributing to this effect has been theoretically and experimentally rejected.

This is one example that shows the difference between classical and quantum reality. This effect of the quantum system explains a lot of aspects of nature (faith chemical characteristics of atoms and molecules) and is tested by experiments.

"In fact, the theories of entanglement have led to believe scientists that there might be a way to speed up the computation. Computers Even today we are approaching a point where the speed is limited to the speed of an electron which can move through a wire. Whether, entanglement could fly beyond that limit in a quantum computer "(Manay, 1998)

Kazim Ali Student ID MS120400062

Virtual University Of Pakistan

Abstract— This research work provides a general vision of quantum computers. The function description, the differences between quantum computers and silicon, the major problems constructing a quantum computer and lots other basics. No particular scientific understanding needed for the reader.

Introduction TO QUANTUM COMPUTER

Approximately 2030 computers may have no transistor and chipset. Think of a team that is significantly faster than a classical computer common silicon chipset. In theory Quantum computer can work without energy consumption and thousands of millions of times faster than that of computers today PIV. Scientists have already thought about a quantum computer, as a new breed of classical computers.

Gershenfeld says that if manufacturing smaller and smaller transistors continue with same rate as in past years, then by the year around 2020, in the width of a wire into a computer chip will be nothing but in size of a single atom. These are the sizes for the rules of classical physics no longer apply. Equipment specially designed for today's developed chip technology does not continue to receive cheaper and better. Due to its great power, a quantum computer is a next step in computer technology attraction. (Manay, 1998, p. 5).

A quantum computing technology is also vastly different. Quantum computer uses quantum bits (qubits) for operation. Qubit has a quaternary nature. Rules of quantum mechanics are completely different from the rules of classic physics. A qubit may not exist only in the corresponding states to the logical values 0 or 1 like in the classic event of one bit, but also in a state of superposition.

A qubit is a bit of data which may be zero and one simultaneously (in a state of superposition). So the working on a computer rather than of a qubit standard bit to perform calculations using both values simultaneously. A qubyte can have all values from 0 to 255 simultaneously which consists of eight qubits. "Multi-qubyte systems have the power beyond. What is possible with classical computers for operation?" (Quantum Computers and Moore's Law, p.1)

Forty qubits quantum computer and modern supercomputers may have the same working power. According to Chuang a supercomputer takes a huge time to find a telephone no from the world telephone directories database, where quantum computer is capable of solving this work in 27 minutes.

HISTORY OF QUANTUM COMPUTERS

In 1982 R.Feynman introduced an interesting thought how the quantum system can be used in reasons of calculation. He also gave an explanation of how the effects of quantum physics can be simulated by a quantum computer. This concept was really interesting that can be used for future research of quantum systems. Each experiment that investigates the effects and the laws of quantum physics is complicated and expensive. Quantum computer would be a system performing such experiments permanently. Later, in 1985it was demonstrated that quantum computer would be much more powerful than a classic in 1985. (West, 2000, p. 3)

The key difference between classical computers and quantum computers

A classical computer's memory is a string set of 0 and 1, and can perform calculations on a single set of numbers simultaneously. The quantum computer memory can be a set of different superposition numbers in the quantum state. A quantum computer can do an estimate arbitrary reversible classical numbers all at once. To perform a calculation in many different numbers simultaneously and then interfered all outcomes for a single answer, quantum computer makes a lot more potent than a classical one. (West, 2000)

The potential and the power of quantum computing

Quantum computer with 500 qubits provides superposition states 2500. Every state would be classically equal to a unique list of 500 1's and 0's. Such equipment can be operated in 2500 states simultaneously. Eventually, searching the system could cause a collapse into a single quantum state arising from a single response, a list of 500 qubits 1's and 0's, as stated by the truism measurement of the quantum mechanics. This kind of equipment is equal to a classical computer's memory, with around 10150 processors. (West, 2000, p. 3)

Moore's Law for quantum computers

According to Moore's Law, the presence of transistors on silicon chip doubles after every 18 months. According to this evolution, if there is a classical computer in 2020, will be executed at 40 GHz CPU speed with 160 GB RAM. When we are using an analog Moor's law for quantum computers, the number of quantum bits would double every 18 months. However, the addition of a single qubit is enough to double the speed. Therefore, the quantum computer speed increases more than doubled. (Quantum Computers and Moore's Law, § 1)

Certain challenges on the production of quantum computers

Any type of measure a quantum state settings deemed an interactive process with the environment (with other particles - light particles, for example), which causes a change of certain parameters of this quantum state. Measuring the quantum state superposition will collapse into a classical state. This is called a decoherence. This is the major obstacle in the process of production of quantum computer. If the problem can not be resolved decoherence, quantum computer will not be better than a silicon computer. (Daniel, 1999)

To make powerful speedy quantum computers, many operations must be performed before quantum coherence is lost. It may be impossible to construct a quantum computer that will make the calculations before decohering. But if it is a quantum computer, where the number of bugs is sufficiently low, it is possible to utilize a data correction code for the prevention lost even when qubits in the computer decohere. There are plenty of errors correction codes. One of the most simple classical error correction codes is called repetition code. 0 is encoded as 000 to 1 and 111. Then if you invest just a bit, you get a 011 status such that it can be corrected to the original 111. Signs of a quantum superposition states are also important, but also signs the errors can be corrected. There is even a theory of quantum error correction codes. (Daniel, 1999, p. 1)

Further problem is the hardware for quantum computers. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) for operation is the most popular nowadays, due to some successful experiments. MIT and Los Alamos National Laboratory have built a simple a quantum computer using MRI technology. Certain other designs are based on the ion trap and quantum electrodynamics (QED) for operation. All these methods have significant limitations. Nobody knows what the future of architecture is quantum computer hardware (West, 2000, p. 6)

Quantum computers Future Benefits

1. Artificial intelligence

It has been mentioned that quantum computers will be much faster and faster so that perform a lot of operations in a very short time. On the other hand, it has been increasing the operating speed of computers help to learn quickly even using one of the simplest methods. It limit error model for learning.

2. Cryptography and Peter Shor Algorithm

Peter Shor (Bell Laboratories) discovered the first quantum algorithm in 1994 that can make an efficient factorization. It became a complex application that only a quantum computer could do. Factoring is one of the most important problems of cryptography. For example, the security of RSA (electronic banking security) is public key cryptography. It depends on factoring and is a major problem. Due to the many useful features of the quantum computer, scientists put more efforts to build it. However, breaking any current encryption that takes almost forever to existing equipment, you can only take a few years in the quantum computer. (Maney, 1998)

3. Other Different Benefits

High Yield enables us to develop complex compression algorithms of recognition, voice speech and image, molecular simulations, true randomness and quantum communication. The chance is important in the simulations. Molecular simulations are important for chemistry and biology for the development of simulation applications for chemistry and biology. With the help of quantum communication both receiver and sender is notified when an intruder tries to capture the signal. The quantum bits also enable more information to be communicated shortly. Quantum computers make the communication more secure.

The strangeness of quantum computers

"On the side of theory, quantum mechanics penetrates deeply into the areas that are almost unthinkable. For example, it is possible that a quantum computer contains an infinite number of correct answers to an infinite number of parallel universes. What happens is that you get the right response to allow the universe. Think about what happen is that time. Charles Bennett of IBM says: "It takes courage to accept these things." "If you do, you must have to believe in a bunch of some other strange things. (Manay, 1998)

Dancing Atoms Chloroform

A few years ago, Gershenfeld and Chuang made the first quantum computer. It is based on nuclear magnetic resonance technology. The program was the realization of a single Grover search algorithm. Compared with classical computers took an item out of four in one step, instead of two or three classical steps calculated. The price for making the first two qubits equipment was approximately $ 1 million.

The entanglement of quantum systems

According to quantum mechanics, external force acting on two-particle quantum system can cause entanglement. The quantum state of this system can contain all positions of the spins (internal magnetic moments) of each particle. The total spin of the system can only be equal to certain discrete values with different probabilities. Measurements of total spin quantum systems showed certain positions of the spins of some particles are not independent of each other. For such systems, when an orientation of a particle of a spin changed for some reason, one of a spin orientation another particle automatically and instantly changed. The laws that have been developed to date on the speed of light is disobeyed in this case, because the change in the orientation of a rotation occurs immediately. At least this phenomenon for quantum computing is not running to use.

It is well known that a communication speed is limited by the speed of light as the speed of light can travel faster. The question is how they communicate particle quantum system when they change their spin orientation and thus their vector states. Famous scientists spent much time talking about it. Einstein's idea that some unknown parameters "hidden" quantum system are contributing to this effect has been theoretically and experimentally rejected.

This is one example that shows the difference between classical and quantum reality. This effect of the quantum system explains a lot of aspects of nature (faith chemical characteristics of atoms and molecules) and is tested by experiments.

"In fact, the theories of entanglement have led to believe scientists that there might be a way to speed up the computation. Computers Even today we are approaching a point where the speed is limited to the speed of an electron which can move through a wire. Whether, entanglement could fly beyond that limit in a quantum computer "(Manay, 1998)